[Partial list of persons mentioned in Henry L. Mencken, The Philosophy Of Friedrich Nietzsche (Torrance, CA: The Noontide Press). Reprint of work originally published in 1908.]

Aeschylus (b. 525 B.C., Eleusis, Greece–d. 456 B.C., Gela, Sicily). Athenian tragic dramatist. Of his approximately ninety plays, seven survive; best known for his Orestean trilogy: Agamemnon, Cho:ephore, and Eumenides. Other plays: The Supplicants, The Persians, Prometheus Bound and The Seven Against Thebes.

Ajax. In Greek legend, one of the leading Greek heroes in the Trojan War, famous for his size, physical strength and beauty. Next to Achilles, he was the bravest of the Greek warriors. According to common poetical traditions, he died by his own hand. The decision of Agamemmnon, on the advice of Athena, to award the arms of Achilles to Odysseus drove Ajax mad, and, according to Sophocles, in his insanity he furiously attacked and slew the sheep belonging to the Greeks, imagining them to be his enemies. Shame for his conduct drove him to suicide. Other accounts have him murdered. From his blood sprung a purple flower, bearing on its leaves the letters ai, the first letters of his name in Greek, and also an exclamation of woe. Ajax is also the name of a Locrian legendary king, son of O:ileus, and one of the heroes of the Trojan War. He incurred the wrath of Athena and was shipwrecked and drowned on his return from war.

Altenburg, Duke of.

Althusius, Johannes (b. 1557, Diedenshausen, Wittgenstein-Berleberg–d. 1638 Aug 12, Emden, Holland). Dutch Calvinist political theorist who was the intellectual father of modern federalism and an advocate of popular sovereignty.

After philosophic and legal studies in Switzerland, Althusius was a professor at the University of Herborn in Nassau until 1604, when he became syndic of the town of Emden in the Dutch province of Friesland.

Author of a noted general treatise on Roman law, as well as other legal essays, his principle work was Politica methodice digesta atque exemplis sacris et profanis illustrata (1603, enlarged 1610 and 1614), a systematized tract on all forms of human association. While reflecting Calvinist puritanism, Althusius stressed that each social group is to be justified by providing a full and happy life for each of its members. Althusius's work was rediscovered in the 20th century by Otto von Gierke.

Anaxagoras (b. c. 500 B.C., Clazomenae, Iona–d. c. 428 B.C., Lamsacus, Mysia). Greek philosopher, teacher at Athens (c. 464-c.434) of Pericles, Thucydides, Euripedes, and perhaps Socrates; exiled from Athens because his teachings were impious): 265

Andreas-Salomé, Lou (b. 1861 Feb 12, St Petersburg, Russia – d. 1937 Feb 5, Göttingen, Germany). German writer noted for her friendship with the great men of her day. Beloved of Nietzsche in 1882, she rejected his proposals of marriage and later married an orientalist, F.C. Andreas. In 1897 she met the poet Rainer Maria Rilke, who was 14 years younger than she was and who also fell in love with her. She became one of the formative influences on his life. In 1911 she became associated with the Vienna Circle of psychoanalysts and was a friend and disciple of Sigmund Freud. Besides her novels her works include Friedrich Nietzsche in seinen Werken (Friedrich Nietzsche in His Works, 1894), Rainer Maria Rilke (1928), and Mein Dank an Freud (My Thanks to Freud, 1931).

Apollo. In Greek and Roman Mythology, one of the Olympian gods, son of Zeus and Leto, representing the light- and life-giving influence, as well as the deadly power, of the sun, and often identified with the sun-god Helios; leader of the Muses, god of music, poetry and healing; all seeing, hence master of prophecy; also destroyer of the unjust and insolent; ruler of pestilence; father of Aesculapius, to whom he granted his art of healing.

Aquinas, Thomas (b. c.1225, Roccasecca–d. 1274 Mar 7, Fossanova). Called "Doctor Angelicus"; Italian theologian, leading scholastic philosopher, founder of Thomism; most important work is Summa Theologica (1267-73), though it was not finished by him.

Arcesilaus or Arcesilas (315 B.C., Pitane, Aeolis–d. c. 241 B.C.). Greek skeptical philosopher; founder of the so-called Second Academy; opponent of Stoicism and exponent of the Socratic method; held that both senses and reason are untrustworthy).

Aristotle (384 B.C., Stagira, on the Chalcidic Peninsula–322 B.C., Chalcis, on the Island of Euboea). Aristotle was not strictly Greek; he was a Macedonian.

Augustine of Canterbury, Saint (d. c.604 or 613, Canterbury, England). Roman Benedictine monk chosen (595 or 596) by Pope Gregory I to head a group of 40 missionaries to the English.

Austin of Canterbury, Saint see Augustine of Canterbury, Saint

Bacon, Francis (b. 1561 Jan 22–d. 1626 Apr 9). Political figure, philosopher; major work is Novum Organum; introduced empiricism and the inductive method, though Roger Bacon (c.1210-c.1293) was more original and prepared the way.

Balfour, Arthur James (b. 1848 Jul 25–d. 1930 Mar 19). British Conservative statesman; author of the Balfour Declaration (1917) favoring limited Jewish settlements in the Palestine; Prime Minister, 1902-05; succeeded (1915) Winston Churchill as first lord of the Admiralty; author of several books, including Defense of Philosophical Doubt (1879).

Barry, William (). Heralds of Revolt (1904)

Basil, Saint (b. A.D. 329, Caesarea, in Cappadocia – 379 Jan 1, Caesarea). Called "Basil the Great". Bishop of Caesarea and metropolitan of Cappadocia (370-379), notable as one of the fathers of the Greek Church. He studied at Constantinople under Libanius, and at Athens in the schools of philosophy and rhetoric, and then returned to Caesarea as a rhetorician. About 361 he retired to Pontus and entered upon the monastic life. In 364 he was made presbyter, and in 370 elevated to a bishopric. He was a vigorous supporter of the orthodox faith in the struggle against Arianism, and a distinguished preacher. His works include commentaries on the scriptures, five books against Eunomius, homilies, and others.

Baxter, Rev. Richard (b. 1615 Nov 12, Rowton, Shropshire, England–d. 1691 Dec 8, London). English non-conformist divine; became chaplain in Cromwell's army; subsequently favored the Restoration. On accession of Charles II in 1660, was appointed King's chaplain, but left Church of England on the passage of the Act of Uniformity (1662) and retired in Acton. In May, 1685, was tried by George Jeffries on the charge of libeling the established church. Baxter could not pay the heavy fine so was detained in prison until November 1686; most lasting work is The Saint's Everlasting Rest (1650).

Beardsley, Aubrey (b. 1872 Aug 24, Brighton, England–d. 1898 Mar 16, Menton, France). English illustrator in black and white and draftsman.

Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold von (b. 1815 Apr 1, Schönhausen, Prussia–d. 1898 Jul 30, Friedrichsruh). Prussian statesman, creator and first chancellor of the German Empire.

Bizet, Georges (b. 1838 Oct 25, Paris–1875 Jun 3, Paris). French composer best known for his opera Carmen (1875).

Blake, William (b. 1757 Nov 28, London–d. 1827 Aug 12, London). English poet, engraver, painter and mystic.

Blanqui, (Louis) Auguste (b. 1805 Feb 7, Puget-Th:eniers, Alpes-Maritimes, France–d. 1881 Jan 1, Paris). French socialist and revolutionary, believed to have been the originator of the phrase "dictatorship of the proletariat"; brother of Jér:ome Adolphe Blanqui (1789-1854), the French political economist. He studied both law and medicine but early became interested in politics. He took part in the French insurrectionary movements of 1839, 1848, and 1871. Thirty-four of the 50 years he devoted to politics were spent in prison. His published works include: La Patrie en danger (1871); L’Eternit:e par les Astres (1872), a philosophical work strongly tinged with mysticism; L’Arme:e esclave et opprim:ee (1880); and, most important, Critique sociale, 2 vol., published posthumously in 1885.

Bluntschli, Capt. ‘The Chocolate Soldier’. A character in Arms and the Man (play), G.B. Shaw, 1894.

Bohun, Walter. Son of Walter Boon (‘Williams’); a character in You Never Can Tell (play), G.B. Shaw, 1894.

Bonaparte see Napoleon I

Borgia. Spanish-Italian family of great prominence in Europe from the late 14th through the early 16th centuries. Its best known members were: Alfonso (1378-1458), who became Pope under the title of Calixtus III (1455-58); Alfonso's nephew Rodrigo (c.1431-1503), better known as Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503); and Alexander's children, Giovanni (d.1497), Cesare (c.1476-1507), cardinal and soldier, and Lucrezia (1480-1519). Lucrezia was a woman of great beauty and ability, a patron of learning and the arts. She was long accused of the grossest crimes, but later writers have cleared her reputation of the worst charges against her.

Boswell, James (b. 1740 Oct 20, Edinburgh, Scotland–d. 1795 May 19, London). Lawyer. Biographer of Samuel Johnson.

Bradley, Henry (b. 1845 Dec 3, Manchester, England–d. 1923 May 23, Oxford, England). English lexicographer, historian and philologist; became a joint editor of the Oxford English Dictionary in 1889 and in 1915 succeeded to post of editor-in-chief.

Brandes, Georg Morris (b. 1842 Feb 4, Copenhagen–d. 1927 Feb 19, Copenhagen). Original surname, Cohen. Danish writer on esthetics and the history of literature; docent at the University of Copenhagen; his university lectures in the first half of the 1870s brought accusations of radicalism and freethinking. In 1877 he left Denmark for Germany, and settled in Berlin. He died in Copenhagen, the same city where he was born.

Bruno, Giordano (b. c.1548, Nola, Italy–d. 1600 Feb 17, Rome, Italy). The most important philosopher of the Italian Renaissance. He entered the Dominican order but, when accused of heresy, abandoned it. He was a pantheist. Imprisoned by the Inquisition in 1592 and burned in 1600.

Bryan, William Jennings (b. 1860 Mar 19, Salem, Ill.–d. 1925 Jul 26, Dayton, Tenn.). American political leader, editor, and popular lecturer. Bryan was nominated three times for presidency of U.S. "Cross of Gold" Speech at the 1896 Democratic Convention. Witness for the prosecution at the Scopes Trial, 1925. Chief advocate of two amendments to the U.S. Constitution: direct election of U.S. Senators and graduated income tax. Gave powerful support to Women's Suffrage and prohibition amendments.

Bunyan, John (b. 1628 Nov (baptized Nov 30), Elstow, near Bedford, England–d. 1688 Aug 31, London). English writer and preacher; wrote his best known work, Pilgrim's Progress (1678), in 1675 while imprisoned.

Butler, Samuel (d. 1835 Dec 4, Langar, Nottinghamshire, England–d. 1902 Jun 18, London). English novelist, satirist, Homeric scholar and translator; grandson of Samuel Butler (1777-1839). Painter, some of his pictures hang in the Royal Academy, the British Museum and the Tate Gallery. Wrote on topography and evolution and composed musical pieces in various forms. Argued in The Authoress of the Odyssey (1897) that the Odyssey was written by a woman. Best known for his autobiographical novel The Way of All Flesh (1903) and Erewhon (1872), a utopian romance satirizing Darwinism and orthodox Christianity.

Callicles. A young Athenian in Plato's Gorgias who maintains that might is right.

Campbell, Rev. Reginald John (b. 1867 London–d. 19??). English clergyman; ordained minister of the Congregational Church, 1895; his book The New Theology (1907) attracted wide attention. Left congregational Church and joined Church of England in 1915. Some of his works: A Faith for Today (1900) and Christianity and Social Order (1908).

Carlyle, Thomas (b. 1795 Dec 4, Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire, Scotland–d. 1881 Feb 4, London). Scottish essayist and historian. Son of a stonemason. Educated at Annan Academy and the University of Edinburgh (which he entered in 1809); taught mathematics at Annan (1814-16) and at Kircaldy, under Edward Irving during 1816-18. Gave up teaching and went to Edinburgh to study law (1819), which he soon abandoned in disgust. Wrote articles for New Edinburgh Review and for Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclopedia, and did translating and tutoring, all with little financial success; became a victim of dyspepsia and despair. Began (1820) a study of German literature; wrote Life of Schiller (published in London Magazine, 1823-24; separately, 1825) and translated Goethe's Wilhelm Meister (Apprenticeship, 1824; Travels, 1827); so gained reputation and learned to know writings of his first hero. In 1824-25 visited Paris and London, where he met Coleridge, Lamb, Hazlitt, and other literary men; married Jane Welsh (1826). In 1834, still seeking "bread and work," Carlyle settled at Cheyne Row, Chelsea, London, which was to be his home till death. The French Revolution (1837) established his reputation. For his History of Frederick the Great (6 vols., 1858-65), he journeyed to Germany twice (1852, 1858) and visited all the battlefields of Frederick. His last work, Early Kings of Norway (1875), composed by dictation because of a palsied right hand.

Carpenter, H.G

Chamfort, Sébastien Roch Nicholas (b. c.1741, Auvergne, France–d. 1794 Apr 13, Paris). French writer. Best known for his Maximes et pensées, published posthumously in 1803.


Chesterton, Gilbert Keith (b. 1874 May 29, London–d. 1936 Jun 14, Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, England). English critic and author of verse, essays, novels and short stories. He had an agnostic phase before converting from Anglicanism to Roman Catholicism in 1922.

Chopin, Frederic Francois (b. 1810 Feb 22, Zelazowa-Wola, near Warsaw, Poland–d. 1849 Oct 17, Paris). Composer and pianist; had affair with George Sand.


Clandons. Mrs Lanery, wife of Fergus Crampton. Gloria and Dorothy, her daughters and Philip, her son. Characters in You Never Can Tell (play), G.B.Shaw, 1895.

Columbus, Christopher (b. c.1446, prob. near Genoa, Italy–d. 1515 20 or 21 May, Valladolid, Spain).

Common, Thomas. Translator of Nietzsche’s work into English. Kaufmann call his translation of Zarathustra "particularly inadequate" (Nietzsche, 4th Ed. (Princeton, 1974), p. 492).

Comte, Auguste (b. 1798 Jan 19, Montpellier, France–d. 1857 Sep 5, Paris). French philosopher, founder of positivism.

Cron, Bernhard see Gast, Peter

Cunninghame Graham, Robert Bontine (b. 1852 May 24, London–1936 Mar 20, Buenos Aires). Scottish essayist, short-story writer, biographer, socialist politician and traveler. Born in London, died in Buenos Aires. In 1886 won a seat as a Liberal Member of Parliament, but lost the elections of 1892 and 1898. Suspended from the House of Commons for using the word "damn" in the House, the first member to be so distinguished).

Cusa, Nicolas of see Nicholas of Cusa

D'Anunzio, Gabrielle (b. 1863, Francavilla al Mare, near Pescara, Italy–d. 1938 Mar 1, Gardone, Riviera, Italy). Italian poet and novelist, playwright; rabid Italian nationalist; officer in Italian air force in WW I, where he lost an eye in combat; was an enthusiastic fascist; had affair with Sarah Bernhardt.

Dante Alighieri (b. 1265 May, Florence–d. 1321 Seep 14, Ravenna, Italy). Original surname, Durante. Italian poet. Author of the Divine Comedy.

Darwin, Charles Robert (b. 1809 Feb 12, Shrewsbury, England–d. 1882 Apr 19, Down, Kent, England). English naturalist.

de Casseres, Benjamin (b. 1873, Philadelphia–d. 1945 Dec 6, New York). Author, columnist and editorial writer. Collateral descendant of Benedict de Spinoza, the philosopher. He left school at 13 to work on Philadelphia newspapers. He was a proofreader on The Philadelphia Press from 1892 to 1899, when he came to New York and took a similar position on The Sun. In 1903 he transferred to The New York Herald, where he worked until 1919, with an interval of one year (1906-07) when he went to Mexico City to found and edit El Diario.

He contributed book reviews to various publications and wrote many articles for popular magazines and New York newspapers.

In 1922, de Casseres became drama critic of Arts and Decorations, where he remained until 1933, when he became affiliated with the Hearst organization as columnist, editorial writer and literary editor, first for The American, then The Evening Journal and later for The Mirror.

His work includes The Shadow-Eater (poems) (1915), The Superman in America (1928), Mencken and Shaw (1930), and Spinoza (1932).

Denny (). Studies in Theology (New York, 1894).

de Wysewa ().

Democritus (b. c. 460 B.C., Abdera, Thrace – d. c. 357 B.C.). Called "The Laughing Philosopher". Atomist philosopher; his ideas represent the first formal attempt to create a materialism. He inherited an ample fortune, which enabled him to visit the chief countries of Asia and Africa in the pursuit of knowledge. He adopted and expanded the atomistic theory of Leucippus. He is said to have been of a cheerful disposition, which prompted him to laugh at the follies of men. According to tradition, he put out his eyes in order to be less disturbed by outward things in his philosophical speculations.

Descartes, René (b. 1569 Mar 31, La Haye, Touraine – d. 1650 Feb 11, Stockholm). French philosopher and mathematician.

Diogenes La:ertius (fl. early 3rd c. B.C.). Historian and biographer, author of lives of the Greek philosophers from the early schools to the Epicureans.

Dionysus. In Greek mythology, a fertility god; often limited to his specific gift of the vine and called the god of wine.

Dolson, Grace Neal. Professor of Philosophy.

Dowie, John Alexander (b. 1847 May 25, Edinburgh – d. 1907 Mar 9, Chicago). Scottish-American fanatic; came to U.S. in 1886 from Scotland and in 1896 organized the "Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion", of which he was "general overseer", establishing it in Zion City, near Chicago. In 1906 his followers brought various charges against him, including that of financial mismanagement, and deposed him.

Dubois, Paul Charles (b. 1848 Nov 28, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland – d. 1918 Nov 4, Bern, Switzerland). Swiss neurologist and pioneer of psychotherapy; professor of neuropathology at University of Berne; placed psychotherapy on a definite basis.

Ehrlich, Paul (b. 1854 Mar 14, Strehlen (Strzelin), Silesia – d. 1915 Aug 20, Homburg, Germany). German bacteriologist; co-winner of the 1906 Nobel Prize; in 1910 discovered Salvarsan (L. salvus, safe + Gr. arsen, arsenic) (Arsphenamine, Number 606), for treatment of syphilis).

Eleatic Zeno see Zeno of Elea

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (b. 1803 May 25, Boston – d. 1882 Apr 27, Concord, Mass.). American essayist and poet.

Empedocles (fl. c.490 B.C.-430 B.C.). Greek philosopher, poet, statesman. Born in Agrigentum (modern Agrigento). Was a supporter of the democratic party in Agrigentum (modern Agrigento, Sicily), his native city, against the aristocracy. He possessed great influence through his wealth, eloquence and knowledge. He followed Pythagoras and Parmenides in his teachings. He professed magic powers, prophecy and the power of healing. He is said to have thrown himself into the crater of Etna in order that, from his sudden disappearance, the people might believe him to be a god.

Engelmann, W. Leipzig publisher.

Eusebius Pamphilius (b. c. A.D. 264, probably at Caesarea, Palestine – c.340). Surname Pamphilius. Also known as Eusebius of Caesaria. Theologian and historian, sometimes called the "Father of Church History"; best known work is the Historia Ecclesiastica.

Evans, Robley Dunglison (b. 1846 Aug 18, Floyd County, Virginia – d. 1912 Jan 3, Washington, D.C.). American Naval officer; commanded battleship Iowa during Spanish-American War, taking part in Battle of Santiago, 3 Jul 1898. Appointed rear-admiral 1901; retired, Aug 1908.

Fechner, Gustav Theodor (b. 1801 Apr 19, Gross-Sährchen, near Muskau, Prussia – d. 1887 Nov 18, Leipzig, Germany). German physician, philosopher, and psychologist, known for his psychophysics. He was professor of physics at the University of Leipzig from 1834 until 1839, when he was compelled to resign on account of increasing trouble with his eyes. He subsequently taught natural philosophy, anthropology and aesthetics. He is responsible for articulating the Weber-Fechner Law (that the magnitude of a sensation is proportional to the logarithm of the intensity of the stimulus). His most important work was Elemente der Psychophysic (1860).

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (b. 1762 May 19, Rammenau, near Kamenz, Germany – d. 1814 Jan 27, Berlin). Philosopher.

Fiske, John (b. 1842 Mar 30, Hartford, Conn. – d. 1901 Jul 4, Gloucester, Mass.). Orig. name Edmund Fiske Green. American historical writer.

Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de (b. 1657 Feb 11, Rouen, France – d. 1757 Jan 9, Paris). French philosopher and writer. Works: Dialogues des Morts (1683), Entretiens sur la Pluralit:e des mondes (1686), others.

Förster-Nietzsche see Nietzsche, Therese Elisabeth Alexandra

Fouill:ee, Alfred Jules Emile (b. 1838 Oct 18 – d. 1912 Jul 16, Lyons, France). French philosophical and sociological writer.

Franklin, Benjamin (b. 1706 Jan 17, Boston – d. 1790 Apr 17, Philadelphia). American printer, author, inventor, scientist, statesman, philanthropist, diplomat; signed the Declaration of Independence.

Fritsch, E.W. Leipzig publisher.

Fulda, Ludwig (b. 1862 Jul 15, Frankfort-am-Main, Germany – d. 1939 Mar 22, Weimar, Germany). German playwright; came to the United States in 1906 on the invitation of the Germanistic Society.

Galileo Galilei (b. 1564 Feb, Pisa, Italy – d. 1642 Jan 8, Arcetri, near Florence). Italian physicist.

Gast, Peter see Köselitz, Heinrich.

Gautier, Marguerite. Principal character in La Dame aux cam:elias, by Alexander Dumas (1802-1870; called Dumas p:ere (per) to distinguish him from his son).

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (b. 1749 Aug 28, Frankfort-am-Main – d. 1832 Mar 22, Weimar, Germany). German poet and dramatist.

Goncourt, Edmond Louis Antoine Hout de (b. 1822 May 26, Nancy, France – d. 1896 Jul 16, Champrosay, France). French novelist. He and his brother Jules (1830-1870) were collaborators until Jule's death in 1870; until that time they were always together, only once being separated for more than a day. Neither married.

Gorki, Maxim (b. 1868 Mar 28, Nizhni Novgorod (now Gorki) – d. 1936 Jun 18, Moscow, Russia). Pseud. of Aleksey Maksimovich Peshkov; Soviet author and public figure.

Gosse, Sir Edmund William (b. 1849 Sep 21, London – d. 1928). English poet and literary critic; credited with bringing Ibsen before the English public.

Gould, George Milbry (b. 1848 Nov 8, Auburn, Maine – d. 1922 Aug 8, Atlantic City). American physician and ophthalmologist, author, medical editor and lexicographer; graduated from Harvard Divinity School, 1874; served as pastor but gave up pulpit to enter book and art business. Compelled by delicate health to abandon business; attended Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, graduating in 1888; established practice in ophthalmology at Philadelphia Hospital; applied his theory of the effects of eye-strain on mind and body in Biographic Clinics (6 vols., 1903-1909), a series of studies of literary personages; wrote books and edited medical dictionaries.

Graham, R.B. Cunninghame see Cunninghame Graham

Greeley, Horace (b. 1811 Feb 3, Amherst, NH–d. 1872 Nov 29, Pleasantville, NY). American editor, lecturer, and political leader, noted for his editorship (1841 et seq.) of the New York Tribune.

Grotius, Hugo (b. 1583 Apr 10, Delft, The Netherlands–d. 1645 Aug 28 or 29, Rostock, Germany). Dutch jurist, theologian, statesman and poet; founded discipline of international law.

Gynt, Peer

Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich (b. 1834 Feb 16, Potsdam, Germany–d. 1919 Aug 9, Jena, Germany). German naturalist and materialist philosopher. One of the leading advocates of the biological theory of evolution. Professor at Jean 1862-1909.

Hansson, Ola (b. 1860 Nov 12, H:onsinge, Sweden – d. 1925 Sep 26, B:uy:ukdere, Turkey). Swedish poet, prose writer and critic. Belatedly recognized as one of the most original of modern Swedish writers.

Of peasant stock, Hansson celebrated in Dikter (1884; "Poems") and Notturno (1885) the natural beauty and folkways of his native Sk:ane. The influence of contemporary psychology led him to produce Sensitiva Amorosa (1887), a collection of morbid, erotic sketches that shocked the Sweden of his day. He was embittered by their reception, and he lived abroad from 1889 in Germany, Switzerland, and Turkey. His later works reflect his admiration for Nietzsche and the Pan-Germanist Julius Langbehn.

Hardy, Thomas (b. 1840 Jun 2, Higher Brockhampton, near Dortchester, Dorsetshire, England – d. 1928 Jan 11, near Dorchester). English novelist and poet; Novels: Far From the Madding Crowd (1874), The Mayor of Castlebridge (1886), Tess of the D'Ubervilles (1891), Jude the Obscure (1895), others.

Harvey, William (b. 1578 Apr 1, Folkestone, Kent, England – d. 1657 Jun 3, London). British physician who described the circulation of blood.

Hauptmann, Gerhart (b. 1862 Nov 15, Obersalzbrunn, Germany – d. 1946 Jun 6). German dramatist, novelist and poet; brother of Carl Hauptmann; Nobel Prize for Literature, 1912. He studied sculpture for a time at Breslau and Rome before turning completely to literary work.

Hearst. hearst to karl marx – dig deeper

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (b. 1770 Aug 27, Stuttgart, Germany – d. 1831 Nov 14, Berlin). German philosopher.

Hegesippus, Saint (d. A.D. 180). Earliest historian of the Christian Church; A Jew by birth, he converted to Christianity.

Heine, Heinrich (b. 1797 Dec 13, Düsseldorf, Germany – d. 1856 Feb 17, Paris). German lyric poet and critic; was sent to his uncle Solomon Heine, a banker at Hamburg, to learn a business career, but through the uncle's assistance he was enabled to study jurisprudence at Bonn, Berlin, Göttingen. In 1825 he renounced his Judaism and embraced Christianity. He lived alternately at Hamburg, Berlin and Munich. After 1831 and until his death he lived for the most part in Paris. During the last years of his life he greatly suffered from an incurable spinal malady; from 1837 to 1848 he received an annuity from the French government.

Henderson, William James (b. 1855 Dec 4, Newark, N.J. – d. 1937 Jun 5, New York). American musical writer and critic.

Hervieu, Paul Ernest (b. 1857 Sep 2, Neuilly, France – d. 1915 Sep 2, Paris). French dramatist and novelist; in his plays he probed social and moral problems without solving them on stage.

Hesiod (fl. c. 735 B.C.). Greek poet; most important works: Works and Days and Theogony, an account of the origin of the world and the birth of gods. (Theogony = a recitation of the origin and genealogy of the gods, especially as in ancient epic poetry. Gr. theogonia, theos-, god + -gonos, offspring.)

Hirsch, William. Genius and Degeneration.

Hobbes, Thomas (b. 1588, Apr 5, Westport (now in Malmesbury), Wiltshire, England–d. 1679 Dec 4, Hardwick Hall).


Horace (b. 65 B.C. Dec 8, Venusia (modern Venosa), Apulia–d. 8 B.C. Nov 27, Rome). Full name, Quintus Horatius Flaccus; Roman poet; among his works: Satires, Epodes, Odes, Epistles.

Howard, Bronson Crocker (b. 1842 Oct 7, Detroit, Mich.–d. 1908 Aug 4, Avon, N.J.). American playwright.

Hudson, William Henry (b. 1841 May 2, London–d. 1922 Aug 12). English naturalist and author, wrote many books on birds; born to American parents in Quilmes, near Buenos Aires; lived in Argentina until 1870, then went to England, where he was naturalized in 1900; died in London.

Hugo, Victor Marie (b. 1802 Feb 26, Beesan:con, France–d. 1885 May 22, Paris). French poet, novelist and dramatist; leader of the French Romantic school of the 19th century.

Humboldt, Baron Alexander (b. 1769 Sep 14, Berlin–d. 1859 May 6, Berlin). Full name, Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt. German scientist and author; brother of Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835), the philologist and author. He studied at the universities of Frankfort on the Oder and Götingen, and, after traveling in Holland, Belgium, and England, continued his studies at the Mining School at Freiberg. From 1792 he was for several years assessor of mines at Berlin, but resigned the position in 1797 to travel to Switzerland, Italy, and France. In Paris he became acquainted with Aim:e Boapland, with whom he undertook from 1799 to 1804 a scientific journey to South America and Mexico. From 1809 to 1827 he lived for the most part in Paris, engaged in scientific work. After 1827 he took up his permanent residence in Berlin. In 1829, at the instance of the emperor of Russia, he undertook another scientific expedition, to Siberia and the Caspian Sea. The results of the South American journey were published in a large series of works with the general title Voyage aux r:egions :equinoxiales du nouveau continent. The book Asie Centrale (1843) and other works describe the Asiatic journey. Kosmos (1845-62), perhaps the greatest of Humboldt's books, first published in German, is an attempt to describe the physical universe as a functioning unity.

Hume, Bennett (). London critic.

Hume, David (b. 1711 Apr 26 (O.S.), Edinburgh–d. 1776 Aug 25, Edinburgh). Scottish skeptical philosopher.

Huneker, James Gibbons (b. 1860 Jan 31, Philadelphia–d. 1921 Feb 9, Brooklyn). American music and drama critic. Drama editor (1895-7) of the Morning Advertiser, music, drama and art editor (1900-12) of the New York Sun, later served with both the New York Times and World. Wrote several books, including Mezzotints in Modern Music (1899).

Huxley, Thomas Henry (b. 1825 May 4, Ealing, near London–d. 1895 Jun 29, Eastbourne, Sussex, England). English biologist.

Ibsen, Henrik (b. 1828 Mar 20, Skien, Norway – d. 1906 May 23, Christiana (Oslo)). Norwegian dramatic poet and playwright; studied medicine before devoting himself entirely to literature.

Ignatius, Saint (b. c. A.D. 50, Syria–d. 107, Rome). Surnamed Theophorus; Bishop of Antioch who suffered martyrdom.

Ingersoll, Robert Green (b. 1833 Aug 11, Dresden, NY–d. 1899 Jul 21, Dobbs Ferry, NY). Called the "Great Agnostic"; American lawyer, orator, lecturer, politician and statesman.

Isabella of Spain (b. 1451 Apr 22–d. 1504 Nov 24, Medina del Campo, Spain). Isabella I. Also called "Isabella the Catholic".

Jenner, Edward (b. 1749 May 17, Berkely, Gloucestershire, England–1823 Jan 26, Berkely). British physician and inventor of vaccination for smallpox.

John the Baptist

Jones, Henry Arthur (b. 1851 Sep 28, Grandborough, Buckinghamshire, England–d. 1929 Jan 7). English dramatist. A theorist and active proponent of realism in the drama. One of the leading dramatists of his day. He also published a volume of essays, The Renascence of the English Drama (1895). The Hypocrites (play).

Judas Iscariot

Kaatz, Hugo

Kant, Immanuel (b. 1724, Königsberg – d. 1804, Königsberg). German philosopher.

Kempis, Thomas :a see Thomas :a Kempis

Kepler, Johann (b. 1571 Dec 27, Weil der Stadt, W:urttemberg, Germany – d. 1630 Nov 15, Regensburg, Bavaria). German astronomer; formulated the three laws of planetary orbits: orbits are elliptical, radius vectors sweep out equal areas in equal times, squares of orbital periods proportional to cubes of mean distances from sun.

Kipling, (Joseph) Rudyard (b. 1865 Dec 30, Bombay, India – d. 1936 Jan 18, London). English poet and author.

Koegel, Fritz

Köselitz, Heinrich (1854-1918). Nietzsche's "disciple" in his last years. K. shared N.’s lonlieness and copied his manuscripts, but was one of the "undesirable disciples" because "[t]his one cannot say No ..." (Kaufman, Nietzsche, 4th Ed. (Princeton, 1974), p. 46).

Krafft-Ebing, Baron Richard von (b. 1840 Aug 14, Mannheim, Germany–1902 Dec 22, Mariagr:un, near Graz, Austria). German neurologist and psychiatrist; author of Psychopathia Sexualis (1886).

Kropotkin, Prince Piotr (b. 1842, Moscow–d. 8 Feb 1921, near Moscow). Russian scientist, naturalist and anarchist. A member of one of the oldest families of Russian nobility, he was brought up as a page at court, and studied geology and geography at St Petersburg. As member of a Cossack regiment to Siberia, he made two valuable surveying trips in Manchuria, and later in Finland and Sweden investigated glacial remains there. He became (1867) secretary of the physical geography section of the Geographical Society and was appointed chamberlain to the czarina. At Geneva he joined (1872) the International Workingmen's Association (IWA) and adopted an outlook more radical than theirs. He was arrested in Russia as an anarchist in 1874, but made his escape in 1876. He was imprisoned (1883-86) in France under a law directed against the IWA. He settled in England in 1886, living there until 1914. After the revolution he lived in Russia, though he was opposed to Bolshevism. Author of several works; his most important was Mutual Aid, a Factor of Evolution (1902).

La Bruy:ere, Jean de (b. 1645 August, Paris–d. 1696 May 10, Versailles, France). French moralist; his claim to literary recognition rests on his great work Les Caract:eres, which he undertook in imitation of Theophrastus. The 9th edition, containing over 1,100 caract:eres, was in the process of being published at the time of his death.

Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de (b. 1744 Aug 1, Bazentin, Picardy, France–d. 1829 Dec 18, Paris). French naturalist. First to distinguish invertebrates as a class from vertebrates. Was blind for the last 17 years of his life.

La Mont, R.R.

Lankester, Sir Edwin Ray (b. 1847 May 15, London – d. 1929). English anatomist and zoologist; edited, with M. Foster, the Scientific Memoirs of Th. H. Huxley (1898-1902). Eldest son of Edwin Lankester (1814-1874), English physician and man of science.

La Rochefoucauld, Fran:cois, Duc de (b. 1613 Dec 15, Paris – d. 1680 Mar 17, Paris). French moralist and writer best known for his maxims.

Lavedan, Herni Leon Emile (b. 1859 Apr 9, Orl:eans, France – d. 1940). Wrote comedies, tales and novels; among his plays, Le Duel, Le Bon Temps and Le Go:ut du Vice were produced in the U.S. by the American actor Otis Skinner (1858-1942).

Le Bon, Gustave (b. 1841 May 7, Nogent le Rotrou–d. 1931 Dec 14, Coquette, France). French physician and social psychologist. His important work was La Psychologie des foules (1895, translated as The Crowd, 1922).

Lee, Vernon see Paget, Violet

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von (b. 1646 Jul 1, Leipzig, Germany–d. 1716 Nov 14, Hanover, Germany). German philosopher, mathematician, physicist and historian. Invented a differential and integral calculus slightly later than but independently of Newton.

Lincoln, Abraham (b. 1809 Feb 12, Hardin (now Larue) County, KY–d. 1865 Apr 15, Washington, D.C.). Sixteenth President of the United States.

Liszt, Franz (b. 1811 Oct 22, Raiding. Hungary – d. 1886 Jul 31, Bayreuth, Germany). Hungarian composer and piano virtuoso; produced over 1,000 compositions.

Lombroso, Cesare (b. 1836 Nov, Venice – d. 1909 Oct 19, Turin, Italy). Italian criminologist and alienist. As a result of long athropometric study, he developed the thesis that the criminal falls into a distinct biological type of mankind, forming a special class of the human genus.

Lotze, Rudolf Hermann (b. 1817 May 21, Bautzen, Saxony, Germany – d. 1881 Jul 1, Berlin). German philosopher, initiated a reaction against naturalism and worked on the problems of history and naturalism.

Low, Sir Sidney (b. 1857 Jan 22, London – d. 1932 Jan 13, London). English journalist, teacher and historian; edited the St. James Gazette, 1888-97; served in the Ministry of Information as an editorial writer during WW I. Author of several books.

Lucretius (b. c.96 B.C., Rome – d. 55 B.C.). Roman philosophic poet. Author of De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things). Committed suicide.

Luther, Martin (b. 1483 Nov 10, Eisleben, Germany – d. 1546 Feb 18, Eisleben). German monk; a founder of Protestantism.

Machiavelli, Niccol:o (b. 1469 Florence, Italy – d. 1527 Jun 22, Florence). Florentine statesman and author.

Malthus, Rev. Thomas Robert (b. 1766 Feb 17, near Guildford, Surrey, England – d. 1834 Dec 23, St Catharine's, near Bath, England).

Mantell (playwright?) 287 Mantell to Shakespeare – dig deeper

Marden, Orison Swett (b. 1850 Jul 26, Thornton, N.H.–d. 1924 Mar 10). "Lucky" Marden; American editor and author of inspirational essays. Founder (1897) and editor (1897-1912, 1918-24) of Success.

Mariana, Juan de (b. 1536, Talavera de la Reina, Spain–d. 1624 Feb 16, Toledo). Historian, author of Historia de rebus Hispaniae (1592), a history of Spain from its earliest times. After studying in Alcal:a, Mariana entered the Jesuit order and was ordained in 1561. For the next 14 years he taught theology in Rome, Sicily, and Paris, where his expositions attracted large audiences. Returning to Spain in 1574, he spent the rest of his life in Toledo, studying and writing.

A man of liberal mind, Mariana disturbed his superiors with his defense of the heretic Arioso Montano and with his De rege et regis institutione (1598; The King and the Education of the King, 1948), a treatise on government that argued that the overthrow of a tyrant was justifiable under certain conditions. When his Tractus VII (1607), a series of seven treatises on political and moral subjects, was published, it was banned by the Inquisition, and Mariana was imprisoned for a year and forced to do penance.

Although he remained a Jesuit throughout his life, his criticism of the order, Discurso de los grandes defectos que hay en la forma del Govierno de lo Jesuitas (1626), severely censured the Jesuits for many injustices and inequalities.

Marshall, Alfred (b. 1842 Jul 26, London–d. 1924 Jul 13, Cambridge). English economist; professor of political economy (1885-1908) in the University of Cambridge. His Principles of Economics (1890) was long an authoritative text.

Marx, Karl (b. 1818 May 5, Trier, Rhenish Prussia–d. 1883 Mar 14, London).

Mill, John Stuart (b. 1806 May 20, London–d. 1873 May 8, Avignon, France). English philosophical writer, logician, and economist.

Montaigne, Michel Eyquem (b. 1533 Feb 28, Château Montaigne, Dordogne, France–d. 1592 Sep 13, Ch:ateau Montaigne). French author of three books of essays.

Morgan, John Pierpont (1837 Apr 17, Hartford, Conn.–1913 Mar 31, Rome). American financier, art collector and civic benefactor. (Son John Pierpont (1867-1943) succeeded father as head of J.P. Morgan and Company in 1913).

Morley, Henry (b. 1822 Sep 15, London–d. 1894 May 14). English author. He practiced medicine from 1844 to 1848. He wrote for Household Words and the Examiner from 1850 to 1864 and was editor of the Examiner during the latter part of that time. He was also a professor of English and Literature at the University College, London, and Queen's College, London.


Napoleon I (b. 1769 Aug 15, Ajaccio, Cosrsica – d. 1821 May 5, Longwood, St Helens). Napoleon Bonaparte. Emperor of the French, 1804-14.

Naumann, C.G. Liepzig publisher.

Newton, Sir Isaac (b. 1642 Dec 25, Woolsthorpe, near Grantham, Lincolnshire, England – d. 1727 Mar 20, Kensington, now a borough of London). English physicist.

Nicholas of Cusa (b. 1401, Kues (Cusa), near Trier, Germany – d. 1464 Aug 11, Todi, Italy).

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (b. 1844 Oct 15, near Lützen, Germany – d. 1900 Aug 25, Weimar, Germany).

Nietzsche, Josef. F.W.N.'s brother; died in infancy.

Nietzsche, Karl Ludwig. F.W.N.'s father.

Nietzsche, Therese Elisabeth Alexandra. F.W.N.'s sister.

Nordau, Max Simon (b. 1849 Jul 29, Pest (now part of Budapest), Hungary – d. 1923 Jan 22, Paris). German physician and author. Born in Pest (now part of Hungary), died in Paris. He studied medicine, traveled, was connected with the press, and practiced medicine at Budapest until 1880, when he went to Paris. He was a leader in the Zionist movement. He is chiefly remembered for his Entartung (1893; English translation, Degeneration), in which he attempted to prove a relationship between genius and degeneracy.

Offenbach, Jacques (b. 1819 Jun 20, Cologne, Germany – d. 1880 Oct 5, Paris). Original surname, Levy; German-born French composer of operettas.

Orage, Alfred Richard (b. 1873 Jan 22, Dacre, near Bradford in Yorkshire – d. 1934 Nov 5). English journalist and psychologist.

Osler, Sir William (b. 1849 Jul 12, Bond Head, Ontario, Canada -d. 1919 Dec 29, Oxford, England). Physician; medical research esp. on the circulatory system. Received great (and unwanted) popular renown through his remark that men over 60 should be pensioned. This was exaggerated to the point where "oslerize" came to mean the chloroforming of men as useless at the age of 40.

Paderewski, Ignance Jan (b. 1860 Nov 6, Kuryl:owka, Podolia, Russia–d. 1941 Jun 29, New York). Polish pianist and composer.

Paget, Violet (b. 1857–d. 1935 Feb 13). Pseudonym "Vernon Lee"; English essayist and critic; she wrote much on the art, literature, and drama of Italy, where she lived for many years.

Parkhurst, Charles Henry (b. 1842 Apr 17, Framingham, MA–d. 1933 Sep 8). American clergyman and reformer. In 1891 he became the president of the Society for the Prevention of Crime. His exposure of the corruption of the police department of New York City led to its investigation by a committee of the State legislature ("Lexow Committee"), its reorganization and to the defeat of Tammany Hall at the polls in 1894.

Parmenides of Elea (c. B.C. – B.C.). Founded Eleatic school of philosophy; most important of the pre-Socratic philosophers; gave philosophy its proper focus on metaphysics and ontology.

Parsons, Elsie Clews (). Lectured on sociology at Barnard College. The Family (New York, 1906).

Pasteur, Louis (b. 1822 Dec 27, D:ole, Jura, France – d. 1895 Sep 28, Villeneuve l':Etang, France). French chemist and bacteriologist.

Patterson, Ada

Payne 290

Pfleiderer, Otto (b. 1839 Sep 1, Stetten in Württemberg – d. 1908 Jul 18, Grosslicherfeld, near Berlin). German liberal Protestant theologian. He studied at Tübingen (1857-61), became pastor at Heilbronn in 1868, in 1870 professor of theology at Jena, and in 1875 at Berlin. In New Testament criticism, Pfleiderer belonged to the critical school which grew out of the impulse given by Baur, and was an independent thinker, suggestive and profoundly learned. Wrote that Christ was the inevitable product of his time. His works include Primitive Christianity (14 vols, trans. 1906-11), The Influence of the Apostle Paul on Christianity (Hibbert Lectures, 1885) and The Philosophy of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1894).

Phrynichus (fl. c. 500 B.C.). Attic poet; considered one of the founders of Greek tragedy.

Pindar (b. c. 522 B.C., Cynoscephale, near Thebes, Greece – d. 433 B.C., Argos). Greatest of the Greek lyric poets; resided chiefly in Thebes.

Pius X (1835 Jun 2, Riese, near Treviso, Italy – 1914). Pope, 1903-1914; reformed church music and laws; canonized 1954.

Plato (b. 427 B.C., Athens – d. 347 B.C., Athens). Original name Aristocles.

Pratinus (). Greek playwright.

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (b. 1809 Jul 15, Besan:con, France – d. 1865 Jan 19, Passy, Paris). French anarchist who had a great effect on the syndicalist movement. The first writer to deliberately accept the title ‘anarchist’, and since sometimes regarded as the father of modern anarchism. In What is Property? (1840), Proudhon attacked many of the rights of property prevalent in 19th c. France. He rejected communism and upheld the individual's right to independence, and to the measure of private property necessary for that. For a while he was friendly with Marx, but reacted against the authoritarian and dictatorial implications of Marxian theory, and was himself attacked by Marx in The Poverty of Philosophy (1847). Proudhon founded a newspaper, was elected to the Constituent Assembly, and later imprisoned for his attacks on Louis Napoleon and his regime. He is best remembered for his maxim, ‘property is theft’.

Pyrrho (b. c. 360 B.C., Elis, Greece – c. 270 B.C.). Greek philosopher, founder of the skeptical school.

Pythagorus (b. 570 B.C., Samos – 594 B.C., Metapontum, in Magna Graecia). Greek philosopher and mathematician. None of his writings are extant. His studies and those of his followers lead on one hand to number mysticism and on the other to a quantitative study of nature.

Ramsden, Roderick. (Ramsden, Roebuck ?)

Ramsden, Roebuck. Sister Susan; characters in Man and Superman (play), G.B. Shaw, 1903.

Rée, Paul (1849-1901). Friend of N. who introduced him to Lou Salomé. Rée, a Jew, and Nietzsche met in Basel in the spring of 1873, where Rée, who had been wounded in the Franco-Prussian War, was working on his dissertation. He received his doctorate in 1875.

Reich, Emil (b. 1854 Mar 24, Eperjes (now Pre:sov), in Slovakia – ???? Dec 11, London). Historian and philosopher. Among his books: Imperialism, The Foreigner in History, Success Among Nations, The Fundamental Principles of Evidence, and Success in Life.

Renan, (Joseph) Ernest (b. 1823 Jan 27, Tr:eguier, C:otes-du-Nord, France – 1892 Oct 2, Paris). French philologist and historian. He was the acknowledged leader of the school of critical philosophy in France. His studies, begun in his native town of Tr:eguier, C:otes-du-Nord, were completed at Paris. He was discouraged in the study of theology by the barrenness of the scholastic method then in vogue, and broke sharply with the system. While making his living by teaching, he pursued his studies in comparative philology, and took, one after the other, his university degrees. His works published between 1850 and 1860 attracted much attention, especially for their style. Soon after his return from a mission to the East (1861), Renan was called to the chair of Hebrew in the Coll:ege de France; but as he denied the divinity of Christ, he fell out with the clerical party, and was forced to resign his professorship in 1864. The works he wrote about this time contributed perhaps in greatest measure to his reputation. Foremost among them stands La Vie de Jésus (1863), the first book in the series entitled Historie des origines du christianisme.

Richard Coeur de Lion (b. 1157 Sep 8, probably at Oxford – d. 1199 Apr 6, Limoges, France). Richard the Lion-Hearted; Richard I of England. Third son of Henry II.

Riehl, Alois (b. 1844 Apr 27, Bozen (now Bolzano), Tyrol – 1924 Nov 21, Neubadelsberg, near Berlin). German Neo-Kantian philosopher, logician, critic and professor.

Ritschl, Albrecht (b. 1822 Mar 25, Berlin – d. 1889 Mar 20). Theologian. Advanced the idea that Christian tales of miracles and that Christ was not divine, but that the teachings of Christianity are nonetheless the best wisdom of the human race.

Ritschl, Friedrich Wilhelm (b. 1806 Apr 6, Grossvargula, Thuringia, Germany – d. 1876 Nov 9, Leipzig, Germany). Philologist. His wife introduced Nietzsche to Wagner.

Rockefeller, John Davison (b. 1839 Jul 8, Richford, NY – d. 1937 May 23, Ormond Beach, Florida). American industrialist.

Roosevelt, Theodore (b. 1858 Oct 27, New York – d. 1919 Jan 6, Sagamore Hill, Oyster Bay, Long Island, NY) 26th president of the United States.

Rousseau, Jean Jacques (b. 1712 Jun 28, Geneva, Switzerland – d. 1778 Jul 2, Ermenoville).

Saint-Beuve, Ch:arles Augustin (b. 1804 Dec 23, Boulogne, France – 1869 Oct 13, Paris). French poet, literary critic and historian.

Sallust (b. c.86 B.C., in Amiternum, in the country of the Sabines, Italy – d. c.34 B.C.). Full name, Gaius Sallustius Crispus. Roman historian, politician. As Governor of Numidia said to be unjust and extortionate.

Salomé, Lou see Andreas-Salomé, Lou

Sanchez, Florencio (b. 1875, Montevideo, Uruguay – d. 1910, Milan, Italy). Uruguayan dramatist, author of more than 20 plays. Considered by some to be the greatest dramatist in Spanish-American literature.

Sand, George (b. 1804 Jul 1, Paris – d. 1876 Jun 8, Mohant, near La Ch:atre, France). Pseudonym of Amadine Aurore Lucie Dupin, Baroness Dudeuant; French novelist and playwright.

Sarcey, Francisque (b. 1827, Dourdan – d. 1899, Paris). French drama critic. After brilliant studies at Charlemagne college where he made friends with Edmond About, he entered a higher Teacher training school in 1848. He was a Professor in the province of 1851 to 1858, but in hillock with the administration, He asked for a leave of one year in 1859, came to Paris and, thanks to About, wrote for various newspapers and reviews, in particular Figaro, where he wrote under the pseudonym of Suttières. He resigned his post of professor in 1860 and devoted himself to journalism. He wrote for the Journal littéraire de la semaine(Literary journal of the week), became the dramatic critic of L’Opinion nationale, then, in 1867, of Temps, for which he wrote, until his death, a much awaited piece of theatrical criticism which appeared each Monday. He left when the newspaper became Bonapartist, and founded with About Le XlXe Siècle. Works: Recollections of Middle Life (1893), Quarante Ans de théâtre [Forty Years of theatre] (1900-1902).

Savonarola, Girolamo (b. 1452 Sep 21, Ferrara, Italy – d. 1498 May 23, Florence). Italian moral, political and religious reformer. He became a Dominican monk in 1475. Denounced political corruption in the church and in the state; was one of the chief instruments in the overthrow of the Medici and the restoration of the republic in 1494. Denounced Pope Alexander VI; excommunicated, 1497; strangled and burned at the instance of the Pope.

Schellwien, Robert ().Author of Max Stirner und Friedrich Nietzsche (Paris, 1904).

Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von (b. 1759 Nov 10, Marbach, Germany – d. 1805 May 9, Weimar, Germany). German poet, dramatist and historian.

Schley, Winfield Scott (1839 Oct 9, Frederick County, MD – 1909 Oct 2, New York). American naval commander. He was graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1860, served in the Union navy during the Civil War, was an instructor at the Naval Academy (1866-69, 1874-76), and commanded the relief expedition which rescued Adolphus Washington Greely (1844-1935) and six of his companions in 1884.

He was promoted to captain in 1888, to commodore 6 Feb 1898, and to rear admiral 10 Aug 1898. In the Spanish-American War he commanded the ``Flying Squadron'' (the vessels Brooklyn, Massachusetts, Texas and others), and directed the fighting in the battle of Santiago de Cuba (3 Jul 1898).

He published, cojointly with Soley, The Rescue of Greely (1885) and, alone, Forty-five Years under the Flag (1904). He retired in 1901.

Schopenhauer, Arthur (b. 1788 Feb 22, Danzig – d. 1860 Sep 21, Frankfort-am-Main).

Schumann, Robert (b. 1810 Jun 8, Zwickau, Germany – d. 1856 Jul 29, Endenich, Germany). German composer and music critic; an exponent of the Romantic school.

Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (b. c.4 B.C., Corduba (now C:ordoba), Spain – d. A.D. 65, at his villa near Rome). Called Seneca the Younger. Roman Stoic philosopher and statesman. Son of Lucius Annaeus Seneca (c.54 B.C.-A.D. 39; called Seneca the Elder or Seneca the Rhetorician; Roman writer). Influential Stoic, born in Cordova. He was a senator under Caligula.

In the first year (41) of the reign of Caligula's successor, Claudius, he was banished to Corsica at the instigation of the empress Messalina, who accused him of improper intimacy with Julia, the daughter of Germanicus. He was recalled in 49 through the influence of Agrippina, the new wife of Claudius, who entrusted him with the education of her son Nero. On the accession of Nero in 54, he obtained virtual control of the government, which he exercised in concert with Sextus Afranius Burrus, prefect of the Praetorian guard. The restraint which his counsel imposed on the emperor made his tenure of power precarious, and on the death of Burrus in 62 he petitioned for permission to retire from the court. The permission was withheld; nevertheless, he largely withdrew from the management of affairs. He was ultimately charged with complicity in the conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso, and by Nero's order opened his veins in his bath.

Aside from his tragedies, Seneca wrote philosophical works which include De ira (On Anger), De constantia sapientis (On the Constancy of the Wise Man), De brevitate vitae (On the Brevity of Life).

Seth, Andrew (b. 1856 Dec 20, Edinburgh – 1931 Sep 1, near Selkirk, Scotland). Later known as Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison. Scottish philosophical writer, professor of logic and metaphysics at the University of Edinburgh from 1891. In 1898 he assumed the name Pringle-Pattison in order to meet the provisions of a bequest. Among his works: Man's Place in the Cosmos (1897), Two Lectures on Theism (1897) and The Philosophical Radicals (1907).

Seth Pringle-Pattison see Seth, Andrew

Seydlitz, [Freidrich Wilhelm], Baron von (1721 Feb. 3, Kalkar, near Kleve, Brandenburg [Germany]– 1773 Nov 8, Ohlau, Lower Silesia [now Olawa, Pol.]). Prussian cavalry commander who contributed greatly to Frederick II the Great’s victories during the Seven Years’ War (1756-63) and made the Prussian cavalry into a force superior to any of its rivals abroad.

Shakespeare, William (b. 1564 Apr, Stratford-on-Avon, England – d. 1616 Apr 23, Stratford-on-Avon). English poet and playwright.

Shaw, George Bernard (b. 1856 Jul 26, Dublin – d. 1950 Nov 2, Ayot St Lawrence, England). Irish-born English dramatist, critic, essayist.

Sheppard, John (called Jack) (b. 1702, Stepney, England – d. 1724 Nov 16, Tyburn Prison, London). English robber; carpenter by trade; started career as robber c. 1720; was of generous disposition and was very popular; his portrait was painted by Sir John Thornhill; Daniel Defoe wrote a narrative about him in 1724, and a novel by W.H. Ainsworth, Jack Sheppard, was published in 1839; made two remarkable escapes from Newgate, once with the aid of his preceptor in crime Edgeworth Bess (Bess Lyon), from the condemned cell. Captured in an ale-house while drunk; hanged.

Sladen, Douglas Brooke Wheelton (b. 1856 Feb 5, London – d. 1947 Feb 12, Hove, Sussex). English editor, teacher and novelist; planned and edited (1897-99) the first Who's Who and the Green Book.

Smith, Adam (b. 1723 Jun 5, Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland – d. 1790 Jul 17, Edinburgh). Scottish moralist and political economist. Best known for his The Wealth of Nations (1776).

Smith, Goldwin (b. 1823 Aug 13, Reading, Berkshire – d. 1910 Jun 7, Toronto). English journalist and historian; professor of law at Oxford, 1846-67; visited America in 1864, supporting North during Civil War; left England in 1868 to become professor of English and Constitutional History at Cornell University, 1868-71; lived in Canada, 1871 et seq.

Spencer, Herbert (b. 1820 Apr 27, Derby – 1903 Dec 8, Brighton). English philosopher.

Spinoza, Baruch de (b. 1623 Nov 24, Amsterdam, The Netherlands – d. 1677 Feb 21, The Hague). Philosopher; earned living polishing lenses.

Stirner, Max (b. 1806 Bayreuth, German–d. 1856 Jun 26, Berlin). Pseud. of Kaspar Schmidt. His pseudonym derives from Stirn, "forehead", suggestive of reliance on reason and an attitude of compromising egocentrism; known for The Ego and Its Own (1845).

Strauss, David Friedrich (1808 Jan 27, Ludwigsburg, in W:urtemberg, Germany – 1874 Feb 8, Ludwigsburg). Critic of Christianity. Das Leben Jesu (1835), Der alte und der neue Glaube (1872, The Old Faith and the New).

Strauss, Johann (b. 1825 Oct 25, Vienna–d. 1899 Jun 3, Vienna). Called "The Waltz King". Austrian composer; son of Johann Strauss (1804-49). Composed nearly 400 pieces of dance music.

Strauss, Richard (b. 1865 Jun 11, Munich–d. 1949 Sep 8, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany). German composer and conductor. Among his symphonic poems is Also Sprach Zarathustra (1896).

Strindberg, August (b. 1849 Jan 22, Stockholm–1912 May 14, Stockholm). Swedish dramatist and novelist, a leader of modern Swedish literature; three times divorced.

Sudermann, Hermann (b. 1857 Dec 9, Matzicken, East Prussia – d. 1928 Nov 21, Berlin). German playwright and novelist who enjoyed enormous popularity around the end of the 19th century. Der Katzensteg (1889; novel) much read at the time. Of his plays, the two that brought him greatest fame were Die Ehre (1889) and Heimat (1893; English translation, Magda, 1896).

Swift, Jonathan (1667 Nov 30, Dublin – 1745 Oct 19, Dublin). Called Dean Swift.

Tanner, John. (Tanner, Jack ?)

Tanner, Jack. Character in Man and Superman (play), G.B. Shaw, 1903. Tanner represent Don Juan. He is supposed to have written the Revolutionist's Handbook, which is printed as a postscript to the play.

Tertullian (b. c. A.D. 160, Carthage, Africa–d. c. 230 A.D.). Ecclesiastical writer; one of the fathers of the Latin Church; converted to Christianity c. 192; lived in Rome and Carthage; became a Montanist c. 203; chief work Apologeticus, a defense of Christianity; known for his epigram credo quia impossibile est ("I believe it because it is impossible").

Thaw, Harry Kendall (b. 1871 – d. 1947 Feb 21, Miami, FL). Pittsburg millionaire Thaw killed Stanford White (1853-1906), America's most famous architect of the time, at the rooftop garden restaurant of the old Madison Square Garden (designed by White in 1889) on 25 Jun 1906, during the opening performance of Mamzelle Champagne, a musical review. Thaw charged that White had "ruined" his wife, ne:e Evelyn Nesbit, who was a chorus girl and had been White's mistress before her marriage to Thaw. Thaw's trial is one of the sensational trial of the century. After two trials and much legal maneuvering, he was acquitted on grounds of insanity. See Michael MacDonald Mooney, Evelyn Nesbit and Stanford White: Love and Death in the Gilded Age (NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1976) and Paul R. Baker, Stanny: The Gilded Life of Stanford White (NY: The Free Press, 1989).

Thaw trial see Thaw, Harry K.

Thespis (fl. mid 6th c. B.C.). Attic poet; reputed founder of tragic drama.

Thomas á Kempis (b. c.1380, Kempen, Germany–d. 1471 Jul 25, near Zwolle, Netherlands). Also Thomas Hammerkern. German mystic. Best known for his De imitatione Christi (Imitation of Christ, 1486).

Thucydides (471 B.C.-c. 401 B.C.). Greek historian. He was a native of Athens. Wrote History of the Peloponnesian War.

Tillman, Benjamin Ryan (b. 1847 Aug 11, Edgefield County, S.C. – d. 1918). American politician; Governor of South Carolina, 1890, 1892; Senator from S. Carolina 1895 et seq.

Tolstoy, Count Leo Nikolayevich (1828-1910). Russian novelist and philosopher. Author of War and Peace (1866).

Tyndall, John (b. 1820 Aug 2, Leighlin Bridge, Ireland – d. 1893 Dec 4, Haslemere, Surrey, England). British physicist. Zealous advocate of materialism.

Undershaft, Andrew. Character in Major Barbara (play), G.B. Shaw, 1905. Owner of munitions plant, father of Barbara.

Valentine. A dentist in You Never Can Tell (play), G.B. Shaw, 1895.

Vauvenargues, Marquis de (b. 1715 Aug 8, Aix, France–d. 1747 Mar 9, Paris). Title of Luc de Clapiers; French moralist; best known for his Introduction :a la connaissance de l'espirit humain (1746), to which were added some R:eflexions et Maximes, the latter are often contrasted with those of La Rochefoucauld.

Virchow, Rudolf (1821–1902). German anatomist, physiologist, pathologist and anthropologist; founded cellular pathology; accompanied Heinrich Schliemann to Troy in 1879; leader of opposition to Bismarck.

Voltaire (b. 1694 Nov 21, Paris–d. 1778 May 30, Paris). Assumed name of François Marie Arouet.

Wagner, Cosima (b. 1837 Dec 25–d. 1930). German musical patron; daughter of Franz Liszt and the Comtesse d’Agoult (Daniel Sern). After being divorced by her first husband, conductor Hans Bülow, in 1870, she married Richard Wagner, by whom she had already several children. Cosima furthered the establishment of the Bayreuth Opera Festival and served as art director of the opera house until 1908.

Wagner, Richard (1813 May 22, Leipzig, Germany–1883 Feb 13, Venice). Full name, Wilhelm Richard Wagner. German composer and poet.

Wallace, Alfred Russell (b. 1823 Jan 8, Usk, Monmouthshire, England–1913 Nov 7, Broadstone, Dorset, England). English naturalist; independently advanced the theory of natural selection.

Wallace, William. Lectures and Essays on Natural Theology (1898)

Watt, James (b. 1736 Jan 19, Greenock, Scotland–d. 1819 Aug 25, Heathfield, near Birmingham, England). British mechanician, inventor and civil engineer.

Wells, Herbert George (b. 1866 Sep 21, Bromley, Kent–d. 1946 Aug 13, London). English novelist, journalist, historian and scientific and sociological writer. A prolific author. His works include: The Time Machine (1895), The Island of Dr. Moreau (1896) and The Invisible Man (1897).

White, Andrew Dickinson (b. 1832 Nov 7, Homer, NY–1918 Nov 4). American educator, historian, and politician; U.S. Minister, 1879-1881; Ambassador to Germany, 1879-1902; Commissioner to Santo Domingo, 1871; Minister to Russia, 1892-94; head of U.S. Delegation to the 1890 Hague Conference. On the Warfare of Science With Theology in Christendom.

Wilhelm IV

William I (of England) (b. 1027 or 1028, Falaise, Normandy–d. 1087 Sep 9, St-Gervais, near Rouen). Surnamed the Conqueror, the Norman and the Bastard.

William the Conqueror see William I

Wilson, Capt. Mentioned in Shaw's preface to the play Major Barbara.

Windelband, Wilhelm (b. 1848 May 11, Potsdam, Germany–d. 1915 Oct 22, Heidelberg, Germany). German philosopher, historian of philosophy. Founder with Heinrich Rickert of the so-called Baden (or South German) school of philosophy.

Wright, Sir Almroth Edward (b. 1861, Yorkshire, England–d. 1947 Apr 30, Farnham Common, Buckinghamshire, England). English pathologist; discovered method of inoculation against typhus used during WW I; originated vaccines used against enteric tuberculosis and pneumonia; discovered efficacy of inoculating with dead microbes; discovered method of measuring protective substances in blood; contributed to discovery of opsonins.

Xenophanes (b. c. 650 B.C., Colophon, Asia Minor–d. c. 550 B.C.). Criticized Greek popular religion.

Zeno of Elea (fl. 5th c. B.C.). Parmenide's most important pupil; discovered method of dialectics.

Zerbst, Max

Zimmern, Helen (b. 1846 Mar 25, Hamburg, Germany–d. 1934 Jan 11). English author, translator and art critic. She was a correspondent for various English, German and Italian periodicals. Zimmern met FWN in Sils Maris in 1886. Her works include: Life and Philosophy of Schopenhauer (1876), Irish Element in Medieval Culture (1891), Italy of the Italians (1906) and various translations, including Beyond Good and Evil.

Zogbaum, Rufus Fairchild (b. 1849 Aug 28, Charleston, S.C.–d. 1925 Oct 22). American artist and writer; best known as a delineator of military and naval subjects, e.g. his picture Manila Bay.

Zola, Emile (b. 1840 Apr 2, Paris–d. 1902 Sep 29, Paris). French novelist.

Zoroaster (fl. c. 6 B.C.). Ancient Persian religious reformer; founder of Zoroastrianism.


Barnhart, Clarence L., Ed. The New Century Cyclopedia of Names, 3 v. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1954.

Kunitz, Stanley J. and Haycraft, Howard, Eds. Twentieth Century Authors: A Biographic Dictionary of Modern Literature. New York: The H.W. Wilson Company, 1942.